PDF | On Jun 16, , Mahmoud Al-Azab and others published Anatomy of the Immune & Lymphatic System. The lymphatic system includes a series of nodes, ducts, and vessels that works closely with the circulatory system and supports the body's defenses. Functions of The Lymphatic System. • Lymphatic capillaries reabsorb excessive tissue fluid and transport the fluid through the lymphatic pathway, and ultimately.
|Language:||English, German, Portuguese|
|ePub File Size:||17.57 MB|
|PDF File Size:||14.40 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
The Lymphatic System. • network of tissues, organs and vessels that help to maintain the body's fluid balance & protect it from pathogens. • lymphatic vessels . Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of your immune system, which helps protect you from infection. It is spread. Lymphatic System. – M ade up of: • Lymph. • Lymph vessels. • Lymphocytes. • Lymph nodules. • Lymph nodes. • Tonsils. • Spleen. • Thymus Gland. • Red Bone .
Checkpoint What kind of immune system cells develop in the thymus? Figure Location of lymphoid tissue. It is located behind the nose on the posterior wall of the upper pharynx.
In children, a slight en- largement of any of them is not an indication for surgery, Palatine however, because all lymphoid tissue masses tend to be tonsil larger in childhood. The surgery to remove the palatine tonsils is a tonsillectomy; an adenoidectomy is removal of the adenoids.
A Procedure Reconsidered. Figure Location of the tonsils. All are in the vicinity of the pharynx throat.
Checkpoint Tonsils filter tissue fluid. What is the general location of the tonsils?
What does the lymphatic system do?
The Tonsils The tonsils are masses of lymphoid tissue located in the Other Lymphoid Tissue vicinity of the pharynx throat where they remove con- The appendix ah-PEN-diks is a fingerlike tube of lym- taminants from materials that are inhaled or swallowed phatic tissue, measuring about approximately 8 cm 3 in.
Lymphocytes attack pathogens trapped in the large intestine see Fig. Like the tonsils, it these grooves. The tonsils are located in three areas: By means of phagocytosis and production of anti- Box Clinical Perspectives Tonsillectomy: A Procedure Reconsidered B acterial infection of the tonsils tonsillitis is a common childhood illness. In years past, surgical removal of the in- fected tonsils was a standard procedure—tonsillectomy was swallowing or breathing difficult.
Many tonsillectomies are performed in children to treat obstructive sleep apnea, a con- dition in which the child stops breathing for a few seconds at thought to prevent severe infections like strep throat. Because a time during sleep. Recent studies suggest that tonsillectomy tonsils were thought to have little function in the body, many may also be beneficial for children suffering from otitis media, surgeons removed enlarged and even healthy tonsils in order because bacteria infecting the tonsils may travel to the middle to prevent tonsillitis later.
With the discovery that tonsils play ear. Now that this operation is becoming Today, although many cases of tonsillitis are successfully more common, new techniques are being developed. For ex- treated with appropriate antibiotics, tonsillectomy is becom- ample, coblation tonsillectomy uses radiowaves to break ing popular again—in fact, it is the second most common sur- down tonsillar tissue.
Studies suggest that this procedure re- gical procedure among American children. Surgery is consid- sults in a faster recovery, fewer complications, and decreased ered if the infection recurs, or if the enlarged tonsils make post-operative pain compared with electrocautery. Cervical lymphadenitis occurs during microorganisms from invading deeper tissues. Chronic lymphadenitis These clusters of lymphatic nodules are located in the may be caused by the bacillus that causes tuberculosis.
Peyer patches, along with the tonsils and appendix, nodes, as does cancer of the breast. Infections of the ex- are included in the specific network known as GALT, or ternal genitals or the lower extremities may cause en- gut-associated lymphoid tissue. All of these lymphatic tis- largement of the inguinal lymph nodes.
Edema is tissue swelling due to excess fluid. The condi- tion has a variety of causes, but edema due to obstruction of lymph flow is called lymphedema lim-feh-DE-mah. Areas affected by lymphedema cells, and other foreign substances that are potentially are more prone to infection because the filtering activity harmful to the body.
Included among these cells are of the lymphatic system is diminished. Mechanical meth- monocytes, relatively large white blood cells see Fig.
What does the lymphatic system do?
These tiny parasites, carried by insects such as Macrophages in some organs are given special names; flies and mosquitoes, invade the tissues as embryos or 16 Kupffer KOOP-fer cells, for example, are located in immature forms.
They then grow in the lymph channels the lining of the liver sinusoids blood channels. Other and obstruct lymphatic flow. The swelling of the legs or, parts of the reticuloendothelial system are found in the as sometimes happens in men, the scrotum, may be so spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and brain. Some great that the victim becomes incapacitated. This disease macrophages are located in the lungs, where they are is especially common in certain parts of Asia and in some called dust cells because they ingest solid particles that of the Pacific islands.
No cure is known. These names describe the type of cells found within this system. For example, generalized lym- phadenopathy is an early sign of infection with human immunodeficiency virus HIV , the virus that causes ac- quired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS. Mononucleosis is fairly com- Lymphangitis lim-fan-JI-tis , which is inflammation of mon among college students. Such inflamed vessels are a glands. If the lymph nodes are not able to stop the infection, pathogens may enter the bloodstream, causing sep- Splenomegaly ticemia sep-tih-SE-me-ah , or blood poisoning.
Strepto- Enlargement of the spleen, known as splenomegaly sple- cocci often are the invading organisms in such cases. A certain blood fluke flatworm that is fairly common among workers in Japan and other parts of Asia causes marked splenic enlargement. Splenic anemia is characterized by enlargement of the spleen, hemorrhages from the stomach, and fluid accu- mulation in the abdomen. In this and other similar dis- eases, splenectomy appears to constitute a cure.
Lymphoma Lymphoma lim-FO-mah is any tumor, benign or malig- nant, that occurs in lymphoid tissue. Two examples of malignant lymphoma are described next. Hodgkin disease is a chronic malignant disease of Figure Reed-Sternberg cell characteristic of Hodgkin lymphoid tissue, especially the lymph nodes.
The inci- disease. A typical cell has two nuclei with large, dark-staining dence of this disease rises in two age groups: The cause is unknown, but Hodgkin dis- ease appears as painless enlargement of a lymph node or close group of nodes, often in the neck, but also in the thy , especially in the cervical neck region, is an early armpit, thorax, and groin.
It may spread throughout the sign in many cases. It is more widespread through the lymphatic system and eventually to other systems if not lymphatic system than Hodgkin disease and spreads more controlled by treatment. Early signs are weight loss, fever, readily to other tissues, such as the liver. Like Hodgkin night sweats, fatigue, anemia and decline in immune de- disease, it may be related to a viral infection.
It shares fenses. A clear sign of the disease is the presence of Reed- many of the same symptoms as are seen in Hodgkin dis- Sternberg cells in lymph node biopsy tissue Fig. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common than Checkpoint What is lymphadenopathy? Hodgkin disease. It appears mostly in older adults and pa- Checkpoint What is lymphoma and what are two exam- tients with deficient immune systems, such as those with ples of malignant lymphoma?
Enlargement of the lymph nodes lymphadenopa- Word Anatomy Medical terms are built from standardized word parts prefixes, roots, and suffixes. Learning the meanings of these parts can help you remember words and interpret unfamiliar terms. Disorders of the Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Tissue -pathy any disease Lymphadenopathy is any disease of the lymph nodes. Lymphatic system 2.
Secretion of thymosin—stimulates T lymphocytes in A. Functions lymphoid tissue 1.
Fluid balance—drains excess fluid and proteins from D. Tonsils the tissues and returns them to the blood 1. Filter swallowed and inhaled material 2. Protection from infection 2. Located near pharynx throat a. Lymphocytes fight foreign organisms a. Palatine—near soft palate b. Lymphoid tissue filters body fluids b. Pharyngeal adenoids —behind nose 3. Absorption of fats—lacteals absorb digested fats from c.
Lingual—back of tongue small intestine E. Other 1. Appendix—attached to large intestine II. Lymphatic circulation 2. Lymphatic capillaries a. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue GALT 1. Made of endothelium simple squamous epithelium 1 Example—Peyer patches in lining of small 2. More permeable than blood capillaries intestine 3. Overlapping cells form one-way valves B. The intrinsic lymph pump function can be modulated by neural, humoral, and physical factors.
To regulate lymph transport, lymphatic pumping and resistance must be controlled. A better understanding of these mechanisms could provide the basis for the development of better diagnostic and treatment modalities for lymphatic dysfunction.
The Lymphatic Transport System The lymphatic system moves fluid from the interstitial spaces in the tissue parenchyma into the network of lymphatic vessels, through a series of lymph nodes into the postnodal lymph ducts that converge into the thoracic duct for the lower half and upper left quadrant of the body and right lymphatic duct for the upper right quadrant of the body before eventually emptying their lymph into the great veins.
The unidirectional movement of lymph through this network is necessary for the transport of fluid, macromolecules, lipids, antigens, immune cells, and particulate matter.
Thus, all of the important functions that the lymphatic system must accomplish to maintain body homeostasis depend on the controlled transport of lymph from the initial lymphatics to the great veins. This has greatly advanced our understanding of the developmental and remodeling processes that govern some of the structural considerations of the lymphatic system, particularly those in the initial lymphatic vessels where lymph is formed.
Much less recent effort has been placed into the study of the lymphatic structures at any level beyond the most peripheral parts of the lymphatic network. An understanding of the structure and function of the lymphatic architecture must go hand in hand if we are to develop a true appreciation of the impact of the lymphatic system in health and disease.
When evaluating the lymphatic system it is crucial to remember that its principal purpose is the transport of lymph and it is by this regulated transport that ALL of the body's homeostatic functions that the lymphatic system participates in are served. Portrait of Eustachius. Olaus Rudbeck in Thomas Bartholin. Biology portal Medicine portal Lymphatic system portal. Retrieved Primer to the immune response. Academic Press. Retrieved 12 November Gray's anatomy Thirty-fifth ed. Amirsys, Inc.
Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 26 October Powerhouses of Disease Immunity".
Frontiers in Immunology. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Immunology Fifth ed. New York: Freeman and Company. Immunological Reviews. July Dispensable but not irrelevant". The New York Times.
Archived from the original on Surgical recall. Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary 3rd ed.
Elsevier, Inc. Retrieved — via The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Information, Surgery and Functions". Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh - Chp. Lay summary — National Institutes of Health. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes.
The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system.
The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction. Webster's New World Medical Dictionary. Microvascular Research. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. Review of Medical Embryology.
Embryome Sciences. Retrieved Feb 25, Davidson's principles and practice of medicine 21st ed. Merck Manual. BMC Cancer.
Longo 19 March Harrison's Manual of Medicine. McGraw Hill Professional. Cellular Immunology. Aselli, Pecquet, Rudbeck, Bartholin". A History of the Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood. Svensk Medicinhistorisk Tidskrift in Swedish. International League of Antiquarian Booksellers.
Contractile Physiology of Lymphatics
Story of a Great Hospital: The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh Oliver and Boyd. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. September Subscription or UK public library membership required.
Organs of the lymphatic system. Hematopoietic stem cell. Hassall's corpuscles. Lymphatic vessels. Lymph capillary Lymphatic vessel. Lymph trunk Lymph Lymphangion. Anatomy of the lymphatic system. Facial buccinator nasolabial Mandibular Submandibular Submental. Deep anterior cervical pretracheal paratracheal prelaryngeal thyroid Deep lateral cervical superior deep cervical inferior deep cervical retropharyngeal jugulodigastric jugulo-omohyoid.
Anterior cervical Lateral cervical Supraclavicular. Jugular trunk. Subclavian lymph trunk. Parasternal Intercostal Superior diaphragmatic Trachea and bronchi superior inferior bronchopulmonary paratracheal intrapulmonary.
Thoracic duct Right lymphatic duct Bronchomediastinal lymph trunk. Retroaortic Lateral aortic Preaortic Celiac gastric hepatic splenic Superior mesenteric mesenteric ileocolic mesocolic Inferior mesenteric pararectal. Iliac Common external internal Sacral Retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Lumbar lymph trunk Intestinal trunk Cisterna chyli.
Disorders of the lymphatic system and C. The tonsils are lymphoid organs that are also associated with the digestive system. These names describe the type of cells found within this system. Consequently, our understanding of the development and function of the lymphatic system and its role in disease is still emerging. In the lymph nodes, immune cells assess for foreign material, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungus.