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Mackey and 24 Fishman in Abdul Chaer and Leonie Agustina stated that bilingualism means the use of two languages by a speaker in his society by turns. Someone who wants to use two languages, of course they must master the two languages. They must master mother tongue and another language that become a second language. When the people use two languages to interact with other people they become bilingual that means they realize bilingualism.
People occasionally speak languages they master in daily use. When they know more than one language, they may use both of which in their conversation. People use more than one language that occurs in situation of social context, which is a situation where they learn a second language in their communities.
In situation where a person learns a second language, they can be divided between the situation of language learning, language acquisition and people who learn the language. Suwito, Therefore, bilingualism is the habit of using two languages in the interaction with other people.
If we think about the capability of the people who are use two language or more, we are called bilingualism Nababan, In other word, applying bilingualism implicates the people must have bilingual before they can apply bilingualism Nababan, This situation can be seen in big cities of Indonesia, there are many young generations don t use their parent s vernacular actively and use Indonesia language practically and it also happens in other developing countries of Asia and Africa.
Ability levels can be seen from the mastery of speaker to the aspect of grammatical, lexical, semantic and style is reflected in the four language skills: listening, reading, speaking and writing. Many elements are ruled by speakers the higher levels of bilingualism, the less control of the elements that lower of the bilingualism.
Bloomfield , says that the ability of the speaker to use two languages well, but Bloomfield s concept about bilingualism is questioned, therefore Bloomfield s limitation about bilingualism in modified by some people. For example, Lado said that bilingualism is the ability to use the knowledge of the two languages technically. Haugen said that the person who understands about two or more languages means bilingual person.
He also said that bilingual persons don t need to use two languages actively he can only understand it. Studying second language or more foreign language cannot influence their mother tongue Chaer and Agustina, Development of bilingualism is also related to understanding of the language is involved in that bilingualism.
Bloomfield in this case gives the sense of language as a system of codes that have special characteristics. Know two languages means being able to use the two systems code in good. Wienreich gives the sense of language in a broad sense, without distinguishing the levels that exist in it. According to Wienreich mastery of two languages can mean mastery two control systems code, two dialects of the 26 same language or two kinds of the same dialect.
This opinion is also appears from Haugen which include mastery of the two dialects of one language in bilingualism and Rene Appel which states that the what is called two languages in bilingualism is included also two variations of the language. A bilingual situation can produce still other effects on one or more of the languages involved. As we have just seen, it can lead to loss, e.
But sometimes it leads to diffusion; that is certain features spread from one language to the other or others as a result of the contact situation, particularly certain kinds of syntactic features. One linguistic consequence, however, is that there has been some convergence of the languages that are spoken in the village so far as syntax is concerned, but vocabulary differences have been maintained.
It is vocabulary rather than syntax which now serves to distinguish the groups and the variety of multilingualism that has resulted is a special local variety which has developed in response to local needs. Wardhaugh, According to Nababan, bilingualism is defined as the habit uses two languages or codes in interacting with others.
There are two kinds of bilingualism according to him: individual and societal bilingualism. Individual bilingualism is the situation where all the society knows two languages and uses both of which every day in their job and social interaction. For instance; there are forty people in A community and all of them know both X and Y languages.
The second situation is societal bilingualism occurs when there are 27 two languages in the society, but each person just knows one language, so there are two kinds of communication in the society. For example; there are forty peoples in B community, twenty people know X language while the rest of the community knows Y language.
This does not mean that all members know both of languages. Kridalaksana in Ohoiwutun divided bilingualism into three categories, there are: coordinate bilingualism, compound bilingualism and subordinate bilingualism.
The first is coordinate bilingualism, language usage in this phenomenon the speaker use two languages or more separately. A bilingual coordinate when use one language doesn t show the elements of another language. When the speaker switching to another language, a system mixing does not occurs. For instance who master English and Indonesian language, when he speak with foreigner he speaks English but after that he switches his language into mother language Indonesia.
Ohoiwutun, The second type is compound bilingualism, speaking uses two or more language system is integrated. A bilingual compound, often disrupt the elements of both languages are mastered. For example, bilingual compound may happen when Indonesian people work in Malaysia, sometimes they use Indonesian language.
The third type of bilingualism is sub-ordinate bilingualism. This happen to person or community that uses two or more language system separately. Usually, there is still a process of translation.
Marmut Merah Jambu
Bilingual sub-ordinate often mixed the first language concepts in a second language or foreign language studies, which is being learned. This often occurs 28 in the conversation among second language learner, they still translate some vocabularies or sentences that they speak. For example we always find Indonesian student who learn foreign language.
Ohoiwutun, C. The Definition of Code Mixing One of the effect of using two or more languages or bilingualism is code mixing. Wardhaugh explains that code mixing occurs when conversant uses two languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance. Ronald Wardhaugh, 52 The phenomenon of code mixing happens not only between local language and Indonesian language, but also among local language, Indonesian language and English.
The phenomenon of code mixing does not only occur in daily life situations. It also used by some authors to create novel.
Among bilingual speakers is a common phenomenon that can be viewed as performance interference. These phenomenon form the use of the elements of a particular language in one sentence or another language discourse, we call this phenomenon code mixing.
Nowadays, code mixing made in the use of Indonesian language mixed with English, even more flourishing. Weinreich named this code mixing as a mixed grammar. The prominent characteristic in code mixing is the quality of being relaxed or informal situation. In a formal language situation, there are rarely mixed code. If there is mix code in the formal situation, it is because there is no proper expression in a language that is being used so it is necessary to use words from foreign languages.
Sometimes there are also mixes the code if the speaker wants to show his knowledge or his position. Nababan, Code mixing is the use of two languages or more, or two variants of a language in a community. In code mixing there is main code or basic code that used and has the function and autonomy while other codes involved in the event it was only in the form of pieces without function and autonomy.
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If someone uses a word or phrase from one language he has done code mixing. Fasold explain the example of mixture Spanish and English: Y cuando estoy can gonte me borrocha porque me siento.
Happy, free, you know, high and more or less is shard of English. Chaer and Agustina, 30 Another aspect of the language dependency in bilingual communities is the occurrence phenomenon of code mixing. In the code mixing characteristic dependence is marked by the reciprocal relationship between the roles and function of languages. Role means anyone who uses that language, while the function of language means anything to be achieved by speakers with his words.
Special characteristics the speakers is very important, the speakers will color the mix code. Speakers who will have the opportunity to master the language mix more code than the other speakers that only just mastered one or two languages. Suwito, Another characteristic of code mixing phenomenon is that the elements of the language or its variations are to insert in another language no longer has own function. So the elements can be divided into two groups, namely: a Code mixing sourced from the native language and all variations are called inner code-mixing.
The Forms of Code Mixing Suwito classifies code mixing into six kinds according to the linguistic elements that involved in code mixing as follows: 1. The insertion of words 31 The insertion of words here means the language unit that stands on its own, it consist of free morpheme sand bound morphemes.
One common definition of a word is the following a word is any unit of language that in writing, appears between spaces or between a space and a hyphen. Words do not always constitute the smallest meaningful units in a language.
Instead words are sometimes constructed of smaller parts. These parts are called morphemes. The examples are from the novel Marmut Merah Jambu: a Tante-tante desperate berumur empat puluh tahun.
The insertion of phrases A phrase is a group of two or more related words that does not certain both as subject and a predicate. The examples are from the novel Marmut Merah Jambu: a Gue sangat bangga ketika tahu bahwa casting director yang kita pake di sini adalah salah satu casting director untuk film Lord of the Rings.
The insertion of hybrids Hornby states that hybrid is the composed part of words Hornby, it is a combination of word pieces, the combination pieces of 32 Indonesian word and English word. The examples are from the novel Marmut Merah Jambu : a Toh, kalo date-nya gagal, paling gak gue bisa ke pinggir Taman Lawang bawa kecrekan.
The insertion of word reduplication Word reduplication is the repetition of some parts of the base which maybe the entire base more than one word. Reduplication is a morphological process by which the root or stem of a word, or part of it is repeated.
Reduplication is used in inflections to convoy a grammatical function, such as plurality and intensification. Reduplication is found in a wide range of languages and language groups, though its level of linguistic productivity varies.
Example: Kabar kita disini fine-fine aja kok. The insertions of idioms Idioms are an expression which has a meaning different from that, of the individual meaning of each of its component parts. The idiom cannot be translated literally from one language into another without some change in its meaning or connotation Dixson, Idiom is a phrase or sentence whose meaning is not clear from the meaning of its individual s words and which must be learnt as a whole unit.
It means that idiom creates new meaning that is different from the real meaning of each word. Clause is a group of word having a subject and predicate some clause are independents, so they can stand themselves as sentences or may appear within sentences as grammatically complete statement. Other clauses are dependent subordinate they cannot stand themselves and therefore the meaning upon the reminders of the sentences in which they appear.
Sounds like fun kata gue.
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Purpose of Using Code Mixing 1. Need Feeling Motive According to Ohoiwatun need filling-motive happens because of technology need filling, speaker use it as if they could not find 34 words that have similar meaning in the language they speak. The reason is in order they are able to speak simpler and clear to make their partners understand the message conveyed easily, certain bilingual would use certain word to express their feeling.
Prestige Feeling Motive According to Ohoiwatun prestige feeling motive choose by the writer to appear their educational status. There are example for this reason: a Lagian, gue juga kan udah pernah ngalamin sunat sebelumnya, jadi sekalian sharing pengalaman. Asserting Status, Pride And Power As Holmes opinion the purpose usually triggers a writer to switch or mix codes which are more prestigious, in which he cannot obtain when using his previous code.
The mixing word usually is not related specifically to the topic and there is always a word substitute the first language. Being More Informative This purpose occurs when a code mixing is conducted since the speaker is message-oriented. For instance it happens because his 35 occupation and education use the codes often. Holmes 29 says that people may select a particular variety or code because it makes it easier to discuss a particular topic regardless of where they are speaking. It can also be done by quoting and important recitation.
In this case, the speaker wishes to be accurate the exact words are important. Making Jokes The purpose occurs when a code mixing is conducted to set a humorous effect. This purpose also indicates the formality of conversation, an example Paraguay shows that Guarani, the low variety is considered more appropriate for joking and humorous anecdotes. Holmes, 6. Expressing Self-Emotion This purpose occurs when a code mixing is concluded to express a writer self-emotion, such as sadness and happiness.
Yet, sometimes a speaker can even switch in the opposite direction. From the high variety is often to express disapproval, so a person may switch language because they are angry Holmes, But a writer usually uses regional dialects to express sadness and happiness.
Lexical Meaning Lexical meaning is the meaning is the meaning of word when it is independent makna leksikal adalah makna kata ketika kata itu berdiri sendiri. For example, in English there is a bride that the meaning in the Advanced Learner s dictionary of Current English Hornby, dkk, means i something built of wood, stone, concrete or steel across a river, railway, road etc.
Research method is needed by the researcher and it plays significant prole. Related to this research, the writer uses descriptive qualitative method in which this method is to describe what actually happen to procedures about method which are useful in research. In this chapter, the writer would like to explain the methodology of this research.
It consists of research approach, type of the research, object of the study, source of the data, data collection method and technique of data. Moleong, A. Research Approach Concerning the research problems and objectives, the writer uses descriptive qualitative method approaches in this research paper. Descriptive qualitative approach does not apply the detail arithmetic calculation or statistic contains sentences or description of the objects. Moleong, B. Type of Research Concerning with the objective of study, this research uses descriptive qualitative method.
Bogdan and Taylor in Moleong affirm that qualitative research that result the descriptive data, the written and oral words from observing people or behavior. The aim of descriptive qualitative method is to describe a place, fact and characteristic of population systematically, 38 factually and accurately. Descriptive qualitative method employs technique of seeking, collecting and analyzing data.
Collecting, analyzing and interpreting data and finally drawing a conclusion only applies the collected data not for a generalization. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of the research is Indonesian-English code mixing in the forms of words, phrases, hybrids, idioms, clauses and word reduplication which are found in Marmut Merah Jambu Novel.
Source of Data In order to make the analysis easier the researcher needs to use the source of data. The source of data is Marmut Merah Jambu Novel. The writer chooses this novel because this is one of the most bestseller novels in Indonesia. This novel concept comedy was written by the author of the story as in previous books, which makes the reader is very interested in this novel.
The contents of his novel is very interesting, light reading, funny and also there are many words that can truly inspire. Data Collection Method There are many ways to collect the data such as: study document, observation, test, interview and questionnaire.
In this case the writer uses study document as the way to collect the data. According to Arikunto 39 , study document is getting the data about case or variable as note, transcripts, book, magazine, etc. The writer analysis Marmut Merah Jambu Novel to collect the data which related with this research. For collect the data, the writer runs observation through these steps as follows: 1.
Read the Marmut Merah Jambu Novel. Select the Indonesian-English code mixing. Write down the data. Arrange data into several parts based on classification. Technique of Data Analysis In doing analysis the writer uses procedures as follows: 1. Data collection Through this step the writer reads the Marmut Merah Jambu novel and puts code mixing in the novel as the data. Identification After collect the data the writer identifies the appropriate and inappropriate data.
Classification The writer classifies the Indonesia-English code mixing used by Marmut Merah Jambu novel into each form of words, phrases, idioms, word reduplication, clause and hybrids. After that the writer classifies the purpose of code mixing.
Data Analysis After classifying the Indonesian-English code mixing the writer analyzes the data of code mixing that used in Marmut Merah Jambu novel. The method of data analysis is descriptive analysis. The step of analyzing data is presented as follow: a. The researcher read the Marmut Merah Jambu Novel. The researcher writes down and collected the data from the novel. The researcher listed the data. The researcher classifies the data based on: 1.
The Insertion of Words 2. The Insertion of Phrase 3. The Insertion of Hybrids 4. The Insertion of Clause 5. The Insertion of Idiom f. The researcher analyzed the purpose of code mixing as follow: 1. Need Feeling Motive 2. Prestige Feeling Motive 3. The researcher determines the lexical meaning of the form of code mixing that used in Marmut Merah Jambu Novel.
Firstly, the writer classifies the data based on the form e. The last step the writer present what are the purposes of those data. The Forms of Code Mixing Suwito divides kinds of code mixing into six classification, they are insertion of words, phrases, clauses, reduplications, hybrids and idioms. The Insertion of Words One of the types of code mixing is a word, sometimes it happens when Indonesian utterances contain different words from the other language, especially English.
A word can be divided into two, they are single word and compound word. In this novel the single word type of code mixing is a sentence in Indonesia, which mixed an English single word as a piece. Below are the sentences containing English words: Noun 42 1 Dia dibelikan celana jeans dari luar negeri oleh mantan pacarnya. Constructed by two morphemes. Jean is free morpheme and s is bound morpheme. Jean is heavy twilled cotton cloth, especially denim. Note is free morpheme and s is bound morpheme.
Constructed by one morpheme. Prom is a formal ball held for a school class toward the end of the academic year. Fashion is a popular or the latest style of clothing, hair, decoration, or behavior.
Cool is marked by calm self-control especially in trying circumstances. Option is a thing that is or may be chosen. Folder is a folding cover or holder, typically made of stiff paper or card, for storing loose papers. Well is in a good or satisfactory way.
Account is a report or description of an event or experience. Share is free morpheme and ing is bound morpheme. Sharing is a using or enjoying something jointly with others. Constructed by one morpheme and it can t be separated into two or more morphemes.
Shock is a sudden upsetting or surprising event or experience. Rap is free morpheme and er is bound morpheme. Rapper is a person who performs rap music. Udah, casual aja. Casual is without formality of style or manner, in particular of clothing suitable for everyday wearing rather than formal occasions.
Fancy is dated a person or thing that one finds attractive. Mood is a temporary state of mind or feeling. Image is the general impression that a person, organization, or product presents to the public. Chaos is complete disorder and confusion. Week is free morpheme and end is free morpheme. Date is a social or romantic appointment or engagement.
Trend is free morpheme and y is bound morpheme. Trendy is a person who is very fashionable or up to date. Dessert is the sweet course eaten at the end of a meal. Chapter is a main division of a book, typically with a number or title. Display is a performance, show, or event staged for public entertainment.
Draft is a preliminary version of a piece of writing. Sequence is a particular order in which related things follow each other. Script is the written text of a play, film, or broadcast. Constructed by two 48 morphemes. Shoot is free morpheme and ing is bound morpheme. Shooting is the action or practice of shooting. Budget is an estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time. Open is free morpheme and ing is bound morpheme. Opening is a beginning; an initial part.
Develop is free morpheme and ment is bound morpheme. Development is the process of developing or being developed. Constructed by two 49 morphemes. Set is free morpheme and ing is bound morpheme.
Setting is the place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where an event takes place. Survey is an act of surveying an area of land. Cast is free morpheme and ing is bound morpheme.
Casting is the choice of actors to play particular roles in a play or movie. Finance is the management of large amounts of money, especially by governments or large companies. Cast is the actors in a play. Chemistry is the complex emotional or psychological interaction between people.
Break is a pause in work or during an activity or event. Support is the action of supporting something or someone or the state of being supported. Take is the act of photographing a scene or part of a scene without interruption.
Garuda Di Dadaku 2. Marmut Merah Jambu Mobil masih melaju kencang, dan di depan ada pohon gede. Cinta Brontosaurus Selidik punya selidik, gw bertanya kepada sang mama?
Di sisi yang lain, Mr. However, love can come at any time. Tangkaplah Daku, Kau Kujitak! Cinta Brontosaurus Raditya Dika September 1, brntosaurus Semenjak putus cinta ini, dia percaya bahwa cinta bisa kedaluwarsa.
Languages Primary Indonesian Stereo, Dolby. This Movie is about Dika, a writer who had just broken up with his girlfriend, Nina, after a long relationship. J Habibie and his wife Ainun. Alfi Raditya Dika is an employee who aspires to be the boss.When they know more than one language, they may use both of which in their conversation.
In this novel the single word type of code mixing is a sentence in Indonesia, which mixed an English single word as a piece. The reason is in order they are able to speak simpler and clear to make their partners understand the message conveyed easily, certain bilingual would use certain word to express their feeling.
For example, in English there is a bride that the meaning in the Advanced Learner s dictionary of Current English Hornby, dkk, means i something built of wood, stone, concrete or steel across a river, railway, road etc. Dissertation online video hallelujah dissertation words per day translate online essay list of pte building design short essay on pollution with headings rivers dissertation synonyms english halt dissertation ne demek dingilik funny college essay video essay body meaning development dissertation in gujarati whatsapp status image business plan for small coffee shop assigned with limited recourse.
The second situation is societal bilingualism occurs when there are 27 two languages in the society, but each person just knows one language, so there are two kinds of communication in the society.
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